Vermont 1813 Governor, Ballot 2
- Governor (State)
- Vermont 1813 Governor, Ballot 2
- Second Ballot
- Martin Chittenden, Jonas Galusha
|Candidates:||Martin Chittenden||Jonas Galusha|
|Final Result: ||112||111|
|House of Representatives||-||-|
Since no candidate received a majority in the general election, by Vermont law the election passed to the State Legislature. Daniel Chipman, the newly elected Speaker of the House and a Federalist, was charged with putting together a Canvassing Committee to determine an official count of the votes for governor and lieutenant governor. The presentation of this report would precede the vote for governor in the legislature. The committee, dominated by Federalists, rejected all votes from the town of Colchester (in Chittenden County) on the grounds that soldiers who cast ballots in that town may not have been Vermont freemen. This meant that three Republican Council members should be replaced by their Federalist opponents. The seating of these Federalists meant that the 224 members of the legislature were evenly divided between Republicans and Federalists. In the vote for governor, only 223 votes were counted, and Martin Chittenden was declared the winner. The Republicans protested both the unseating of the Republican Councillors and the counting of the votes for governor.
"At the election of 1813 the two leading candidates, Galusha and Martin Chittenden, received nearly an equal share of the votes; but, neither having a majority, the election was sent, as was often the case in those days, to the General Assembly, where, the council being Republican and the House Federalist, a long and acrimonious discussion ensued, the vote being a tie between the two candidates. The result turned on the vote of Colchester, where, it was claimed, certain U.S. soldiers not entitled to participate in the election had cast their ballots; if Colchester's vote were rejected, three Federalist councilors would be returned in place of three Republican councilors. The council having no authority to decide its own membership, the House assumed the responsibility, seated the three Federalists, and Chittenden was declared elected by a vote of 112 to 111, against the violent protest of the Republicans." GALUSHA, JONAS. Encyclopedia, Vermont Biography: A Series of Authentic Biographical Sketches of the Representative Men of Vermont and Sons of Vermont in Other States. 30-31.
"From the Rutland Vermont Herald (Rutland, VT). 'FROM OUR ATTENTIVE CORRESPONDENT. Montpelier, 24th. Oct. 1813. In my former letter, I stated to you some of the very extraordinary proceedings of the Federalists; I am now enabled to give some other facts equally astonishing. On Monday last, judge Smith, judge Crafts, and general Cahoon, presented a remonstrance to the Council, complaining of the doings of the Canvassing committee in rejecting the votes of Colchester, and claiming the seats in lieu of Painter, Dana and Fletcher. On this remonstrance the council sent a resolution to the house, requesting the two houses to meet in joint committee, to examine the doings of the canvassing committee. The house shrunk from the scrutiny, and refused to examine the doings of the canvassing commitee. The republicans having failed in every attempt to bring about an investigation of the corrupt proceedings of the canvassing committee, consented on Thursday last, to go into joint ballot for the choice of governor and lieut. governor. But here the most unaccountable occurance of all took place; governor Galusha presided, and the secretary of state was of course clerk of the joint meeting. Every member of both houses attended, consisting of 224 members. The secretary on counting the votes, declared, that there were but 223 votes give in, of which 112 were for Chittenden, and 111 for Galusha. The republicans being so well satisfied that there was mischief somewhere, immediately, drew up a certificate which was signed by 112 members, declaring that they had voted for governor Galusha!!! Upon this the republicans grounded a remonstrance and motion, yesterday, to go, into another ballot; the members proposing to add the sanction of an oath to their certificate - which was stoutly opposed by the federalist; and whilst the question was debating, governor Chittenden appeared in the house, took his oath, and made a speech!!! On the ballot for lieut. governor, the votes were, for Brigham 112 - for Chamberlain 112. Another ballot took place; but one of the republicans being sick, had gone out in the interim, to his boarding house, and before he could return the votes were counted, and Chamberlain declared elected by a majority of one, to wit, one hundred and twelve to 111. There having been 112 votes given for Brigham, lieut governor is, of itself, strong presumptive evidence, that Galusha had the same number; of course no choice for governor." The Alexandria Herald (Alexandria, VA). November 17, 1813.
"At the election in 1813, [Jonas Galusha] had a large plurality of the votes, but not a majority. The majority of the returned members of the legislature, upon which the election was thus devolved, were republicans, there being four federal majority in the House, and ten republican majority in the Council. But the federal leaders were shrewd and not over-scrupulous, and finding that by rejecting the entire vote of Colchester for councillors, upon the pretence that a large number of votes had been polled illegally by United States soldiers stationed there, three more federal councillors would be elected and the Joint Assembly brought to a tie, they decided to do so, and the federal majority in the House carried out their purposes in that regard. The Joint Assembly balloted a number of times every day for more than a week without effecting a choice, till at length, on the 21st day of October, the votes were declared to be one hundred and twelve for Martin Chittenden, and one hundred and eleven for Jonas Galusha. The one hundred and twelve republican members immediately signed a certificate that they did, each of them, on that bollot (sic), vote for Jonas Galusha, and claimed that the apparent result should be set aside and another ballot be taken. But the federal majority in the House refused to take any further action, and Martin Chittenden was declared Governor. There is good reason to believe that the result of the ballot was correctly declared, only one hundred and eleven persons in fact voting for Galusha, and Oliver Ingham of Canaan having withheld his vote. By what means he was induced to do so it is impossible now to ascertain." Jonas Galusha, The Fifth Governor of Vermont. A Memoir. Read Before the Vermont Historical Society in Presence of the General Assembly of Vermont, at Montpelier, 16 October 1866. Rev. Pliny H. White. 1866. p 11-12.
"Extracts of a letter to the Editor of the Star, dated Montpelier, Saturday Evening, October, 23d, 1813 ... 'a canvassing committee was appointed, consisting of three members from each county, to receive, sort, and count the votes for governor etc. 26 of whom were federal, and 11 republican. Not one repubican from Caledonia county was permitted to be on the committee. The Speaker having one deaf ear, could not hear the names of the republicans who were nominated. In the canvass, a sufficient number of votes were rejected, to prevent a choice of Gov. and Lt. Governor by the people; and enough rejected for Councillors to destroy the election of Crafts, Smith and Cahoon. Errors in spelling the name of Woodworth, would have probably prevented his election at all events. Whether these returns were so made by designing Constables is not ascertained. Judge Crafts lost 120 votes in the town of Derby, by the Constable's omitting to insert his name in the returned list. Had this been correct his election would have been safe. The Colchester votes, alone, would have secured the election of Crafts, Smith and Cahoon. On Monday last, the council sent down a resolution on the memorial of Samuel C. Crafts, Pliny Smith and Wm. Cahoon, requesting the house to join in joint Committee for the purpose of enquiring into the unconstitutional and illegal proceedings of the canvassing Committee, in rejecting the votes of the town of Colchester. The house, after a lengthy and animated debate, refused to go into the enquiry, by a majority of four, on the ground that the proceedings of the Committee were binding on the Legislature in all cases whatever. ... On Thursday the 21st the two houses met in joint committee for the purpose of electing a Governor and Lt. Governor. On the first ballot it appeared that there were for Martin Chittenden 112, and for Jonas Galusha 111, and Chittenden was declared elected ... On Friday it was ascertained that all the republican members of the House and Council did actually attend and put in their ballots for Jonas Galusha as Governor, and one hundred and twelve members voluntarily signed a declaration to that effect. In consequence thereof a remonstrance was presented to the house early on Saturday morning, remonstrating against the election of Martin Chittenden as Governor. After it was read, I introduced a resolution, for the purpose of convening both houses, to take into consideration the subject of the remonstrance, and offered to produce the certificates of 112 members, and to prove on oath, if required, that the same number did actually vote for Jonas Galusha as Governor ; and the house refused to hear the evidence or read the certificates, alledging that no corrupt or mistaken proceedings could now be corrected in that body. A lengthy debate then ensued upon the propriety of adopting the resolution, which lasted more than two hours ; and at 12 o'clock, and during the debate, the Governor elect came into the house and offered to take the oaths of office, which were administered, and after delivering his speech, he retired with the Council. The debate was not resumed, and the house adjourned. In the afternoon the further consideration of the resolution was postponed until Monday next. Thus ends the business of this week, from which you may make such selections for your paper as you may deem proper. The whole history of this business ought to be known to the people, that they may decide whether they are willing to submit to such a violent usurpation. We are now obliged to be governed by a faction, and not by the voice of a majority of the People.'" North Star (Danville, VT). October 30, 1813.
"Political. FROM THE WATCHMAN. ELECTION, No. II. ... When the votes were taken on Thursday for Governor, it appeared that the Hon. MARTIN CHITTENDEN had 112, and his excellency Jonas Galusha 111 ; proclamation was therefore made of the election of the Hon. Martin Chittenden ... It was hoped, that the election of Governor and Lieutenant Governor, was now happily closed. But mark the restlessness of the spirit of usurpation. On Saturday morning after his excellency elect had notified the house that he should appear at twelve o'clock to take the necessary oaths, and make his first communication, the remonstrance of two members of the house against his election was presented by Mr. Leland. This remonstrance stated that 112 members had voted for Jonas Galusha and therefore, there was no choice. A resolution accompanied this remonstrance, inviting the council to meet the house in joint committee on Tuesday next, to consider this remonstrance and attend to the evidence in its support. A certificate accompanied this resolution signed by 112 members of the council and house, stating that they had each of them voted for Jonas Galusha.--As proof that there was no choice, it was proposed that these 112 should, each of them declare on oath, that he gave his ballot for Jonas Galusha. While this subject was in debate his Excellency elect, with the council, appeared in the house. The usual oaths were administered by the chief Judge, and his Excellency made his address to both houses. Immediately after this, the house adjourned without disposing of the resolution and remonstrance. It is believed, the truth respecting the ballots for governor, will appear to be this.--A member of the joint committee, who was thought by the friends of Mr. Galusha, to be on their side had agreed with a friend to whithhold his vote, and was true to his engagement. To discover the traitor, the party instituted the enqury by certificate, which was to end in final purgation, by oath. To the passing of the resolution, it was objected that to invite men to declare on oath for whom they voted, destroying an essential principle of the Constitution, which secured to every one the right of giving a secret vote by ballot. This right, if the measure proposed by the resolution was adopted, would be wholly taken away, and the rod of party terror would govern those suffrages which the Constitution has guaranteed to be perfectly free. An Eye and Ear Witness." The Washingtonian (Windsor, VT), November 8, 1813."
" '... Four federal councillors being thus fixed in their seats it only remained that a federal governor should be managed into office and the work of wickedness would be completed. Their exertions thus far had only produced an equilibrium in the politics of the joint committee--112 against 112. In this situation of things the day arrived for the choice of Governor and Lt. Gov,--A desperate battle was expected--all was anxiety in anticipation of the result. Nothing but corruption, fraud or accident could give us a Governor--which of the three gave us Martin Chittenden, I will not undertake to decide. The result of the ballot was--for Martin Chittenden 112--for Jonas Galusha 111. It was thus evident that either one republican member withheld his vote, or that one vote was not counted ... As the votes were given in by the freemen, Jonas Galusha had nearly 600 more than Martin Chittenden.--As they were counted, his excess was 296--and yet Martin Chittenden is Governor ! through what means let the freemen judge. One thing is sure, THEIR WILL NEVER PLACED HIM THERE.!' " North Star (Danville, VT). November 11, 1813.
Rutland Vermont Herald (Rutland, VT). October 20, 1813.
Rutland Vermont Herald (Rutland, VT). October 26, 1813.
The Vermont Mirror (Middlebury, VT). October 27, 1813.
North Star (Danville, VT). October 30, 1813.
The Washingtonian (Windsor, VT). November 8, 1813.
North Star (Danville, VT). November 11, 1813.
The Democratic Press (Philadelphia, PA). November 14, 1813.
The Alexandria Herald (Alexandria, VA). November 17, 1813.
Republican Star or Eastern Shore General Advertiser (Easton, MD). November 23, 1813.
Degree, Kenneth A. "Impasse! Vermont's 1813 Legislative Session." Vermont History. 78, no. 2. (Summer/Fall 2010). 151-180.
Dodge, Prentiss Cutler. Encyclopedia, Vermont Biography: A Series of Authentic Biographical Sketches of the Representative Men of Vermont and Sons of Vermont in Other States. Burlington, VT: Ullery Publishing, 1912. 30-31.
White, Pliny H. Jonas Galusha, The Fifth Governor of Vermont: A Memoir. Montpelier, VT: E. P. Walton, 1866. p 11-12.
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